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RANDOM QUOTES OF D DAY

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ALL RESEARCH IS MADE BY OLUWASAMI TEMITAYO
HISTORY OF MUSIC
THE HISTORY OF MUSIC
The Middle Ages 450-1450
Characteristics of Music
Music comes from the Ancient Greek muses
who were the nine goddesses of art and science.
Music actually began around 500 B.C. when Pythagoras experimented with acoustics and how math related to tones formed from plucking strings. The main form of music during the Middle Ages was the Gregorian chant, named for Pope Gregory I. This music was used in the Catholic Churches to enhance the services. It consisted of a sacred Latin text sung by monks without instrumentation. The chant is sung in a monophonic texture, which means there is only one line of music. It has a free- flowing rhythm with little or no set beat. The chants were originally all passed through oral tradition, but the chants became so numerous that the monks began to notate them.
Music in Society
Towards the end of the Middle Ages, about the 12th and 13th centuries, music began to move outside of the church.
French nobles called troubadours and trouveres were among the first to have written secular songs. Music of this time was contained among the nobility, with court minstrels performing for them. There were also wandering minstrels who would perform music and acrobatics in castles, taverns, and town squares. These people were among the lowest social class, along with prostitutes and slaves, but they were important because they passed along information, since there were no newspapers.
Eras of music
Prehistoric music, once more commonly called primitive music, is the name given to all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory ), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Prehistoric music is followed by ancient music in most of Europe (1500 BC) and later music in subsequent European-influenced areas, but still exists in isolated areas. Prehistoric music thus technically includes all of the world's music that has existed before the advent of any currently extant historical sources concerning that music, for example, traditional Native American music of preliterate tribes and Australian Aboriginal music. However, it is more common to refer to the "prehistoric" music of non-European continents – especially that which still survives – as folk, indigenous or traditional music. The origin of music is unknown as it occurred prior to recorded history. Some suggest that the origin of music likely stems from naturally occurring sounds and rhythms . Human music may echo these phenomena using patterns, repetition and tonality . Even today, some cultures have certain instances of their music intending to imitate natural sounds . In some instances, this feature is related to shamanistic beliefs or practice.[3][4] It may also serve entertainment (game) [5][6] or practical (luring animals in hunt) [5] functions. It is probable that the first musical instrument was the human voice itself, which can make a vast array of sounds, from singing, humming and whistling through to clicking , coughing and yawning. As for other musical instruments, in 2008 archaeologists discovered a bone flute in the Hohle
Fels cave near Ulm, Germany .[7][8][9] Considered to be about 35,000 years old, the five-holed flute has a V-shaped mouthpiece and is made from a vulture wing bone. The oldest known wooden pipes were discovered near Greystones , Ireland, in 2004. A wood-lined pit contained a group of six flutes made from yew wood, between 30 and 50 cm long, tapered at one end, but without any finger holes. They may once have been strapped together. [10] Ancient music Main article: Ancient music Sassanid women playing Chang (instrument) in Taq-e Bostan , Iran (c. 379 AD) The prehistoric age is considered to have ended with the development of writing, and with it, by definition, prehistoric music. "Ancient music" is the name given to the music that followed. The "oldest known song" was written in cuneiform , dating to 3400 years ago from Ugarit. It was deciphered by Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, and was demonstrated to be composed in harmonies of thirds, like ancient gymel , [11] and also was written using a Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale . The oldest surviving example of a complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world, is the Seikilos epitaph . Double pipes, such as those used by the ancient Greeks, and ancient bagpipes, as well as a review of ancient drawings on vases and walls, etc., and ancient writings (such as in Aristotle, Problems, Book XIX.12) which described musical techniques of the time, indicate polyphony. One pipe in the aulos pairs (double flutes) likely served as a drone or "keynote," while the other played melodic passages. Instruments, such as the seven holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus valley civilization archaeological sites. [12] Indian classical music (marga ) can be found from the scriptures of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas . Samaveda , one of the four vedas, describes music at length. Ravanahatha (ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron or ravana hasta veena) is a bowed fiddle popular in Western India. It is believed to have originated among the Hela civilization of Sri Lanka in the time of King Ravana . This string instrument has been recognised as one of the oldest string instruments in world history. The history of musical development in Iran (Persian music ) dates back to the prehistoric era. The great legendary king, Jamshid, is credited with the invention of music. Music in Iran can be traced back to the days of the Elamite Empire (2500-644 BC). Fragmentary documents from various periods of the country's history establish that the ancient Persians possessed an elaborate musical culture. The Sassanid period (AD 226-651), in particular, has left us ample evidence pointing to the existence of a lively musical life in Persia. The names of some important musicians such as Barbod, Nakissa and Ramtin, and titles of some of their works have survived. The Early music era may also include contemporary but traditional or folk music, including Asian music, Persian music, music of India, Jewish music, Greek music, Roman music, the music of Mesopotamia, the music of Egypt , and Muslim music.
Greece
Prehistoric music, once more commonly called primitive music , is the name given to all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history . ... Some suggest that the origin of music likely stems from naturally occurring sounds and rhythms.
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